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# Episode Title Description People Date
1 Creative Commons Is AI bad for democracy? Analyzing AI’s impact on epistemic agency Professor Mark Coeckelbergh considers whether AI poses a risk for democracy n this St Cross Special Ethics Seminar Mark Coeckelbergh 13 Mar 2023
2 Creative Commons Book Launch: Pacted Democracy in the Middle East: Tunisia and Egypt in Comparative Perspective A new theoretical framework for how democracy can emerge in the Middle East and wider Muslim world, where political conflicts over religion often predominate. Hicham Alaoui, Michael Willis 23 Dec 2022
3 Panel Discussion 'The age of the strongman: populism and authoritarianism in global politics' A discussion on leaders and populism with Lord Patten, Gideon Rachman, Margaret MacMillan and Ricardo Soares de Oliveira Lord Patten of Barnes, Gideon Rachman, Margaret MacMillan, Ricardo Soares de Oliveira 07 Dec 2022
4 Authoritarian Constitutionalism with Paul Fisher Grace Mallon talks to Paul Fisher, a practising barrister and academic lawyer, about his research into constitutional law in post-Soviet non-democracies. Grace Mallon, Paul Fisher 25 Mar 2022
5 Episode 7: The Limits of Academia with Professor Joy James Professor Joy James is the Ebenezer Fitch Professor of Humanities at Williams College. In this episode, Carlotta Hartmann speaks to her about coming to philosophy and the limits of academia. Joy James, Carlotta Hartmann 23 Nov 2021
6 7. Timothy Garton Ash: Finale Interview | The Europe’s Stories Podcast For something different in this series finale, we speak with Timothy Garton Ash, Professor of European Politics at Oxford and Director the Europe’s Stories Project. Timothy Garton Ash, Ana Martins, Lucas Tse; 20 Oct 2021
7 The Hands Lecture 2020 – Western Democracy: the next 20 years Lord (William) Hague of Richmond in conversation with Mansfield Principal, Helen Mountfield QC, on the state of Western democracies. William Hague, Helen Mountfield 18 Oct 2021
8 Creative Commons 6. Europe in the World | The Europe’s Stories Podcast Ana and Lucas speak with Marianna Lovato and Olivier de France, the team’s experts on foreign policy and international politics. Marianna Lovato, Olivier de France, Ana Martins, Lucas Tse 12 Oct 2021
9 5. Democracy | The Europe’s Stories Podcast Today, we talk with Sophie Vériter and Josef Lolacher about the core of the European project - democracy. Sophie Vériter, Josef Lolacher, Ana Martins, Lucas Tse 05 Oct 2021
10 1. Who Are Young Europeans | The Europe’s Stories Podcast Today, Ana and Lucas speak with Dan Snow and Maeve Moynihan about who young Europeans are. Maeve Moynihan, Dan Snow, Ana Martins, Lucas Tse 07 Sep 2021
11 Elahé Omidyar Mir-Djalali Annual Lecture - Iran and the Arab Uprisings: Opportunity Grasped or Squandered? Sponsored in association with Elahé Omidyar Mir-Djalali, Founder and Chair, Roshan Cultural Heritage Institute. With Professor Anoush Ehteshami (Professor of International Relations in the School of Government and International Affairs, Durham University) Anoush Ehteshami 19 Mar 2021
12 Counter-Revolutions Vs. Counter-Marginalization Movements: (Re)Visiting the Online Tug-of-War a Decade After the Arab Spring Dr Marc Owen Jones (Hamad Bin Khalifa University) and Dr Sahar Khamis (University of Maryland) give a talk for the MEC Friday Seminars Series. Chaired by Professor Walter Armbrust (St Antony’s College, Oxford). Marc Owen Jones, Sahar Khamis, Walter Armbrust, Eugene Rogan 17 Mar 2021
13 Tunisia: Unfinished Revolutions (Held jointly with the British-Tunisian Society) Hela Ammar (Artist) and Mohamed Kerrou (University of Tunis El Manar) give a talk for the Middle East Centre Friday Seminar Series. Chaired by Dr Michael Willis (St Antony's College, Oxford), the discussant was Professor Charles R H Tripp (SOAS). Hela Ammar, Mohamed Kerrou, Michael Willis, Charles R H Tripp 12 Mar 2021
14 The Place of Religion After the Uprisings Dr. Shadi Hamid (Brookings Institution; contributing writer, The Atlantic) and Professor Nadia Oweidat (Kansas State University) give a talk for the Middle East Centre Friday seminar series. Chaired by Dr Usaama al-Azami (St Antony's College). Shadi Hamid, Nadia Oweidat, Usaama al-Azami 26 Feb 2021
15 The logic of chaos: The pattern of dictatorships Ece Temelkuran, author of How to Lose a Country: the Seven Steps from Democracy to Dictatorship (2019) gives a talk for the Middle East Centre Friday Seminar series. Chaired by Dr Laurent Mignon (St Antony's College, Oxford). Ece Temelkuran, Laurent Mignon 09 Dec 2020
16 Creative Commons Apocalymbo: Trickster Politics in the Age of the Pandemic (and Other Crises) Walter Armbrust (St Antony’s College, Oxford), author of Martyrs and Tricksters: An Ethnography of the Egyptian Revolution (2019), gives a talk for the Middle East Centre Friday Seminar Series on 20th November 2020. Walter Armbrust, Michael Willis 25 Nov 2020
17 Illiberal Liberals and the Future of Dictatorship in Egypt Dalia Fahmy (Long Island University) editor of Egypt and the Contradictions of Liberalism: Illiberal Intelligentsia and the Future of Egyptian Democracy (2017), gives a talk for the Middle East Centre Friday Seminar Series. Dalia Fahmy, Daanish Faruqi, Usaama al-Azami 10 Nov 2020
18 Hadeel Abu Hussein (Oxford): Palestinian Arab Citizens in Israel, Equality Struggle Hadeel Abu Hussein discusses the historical stages of the Palestinian Arab citizens in Israel with respect to their political formation and social experience as individuals and a collective starting from 1948, until nowadays. Hadeel Abu Hussein 27 Oct 2020
19 The Dictatorship Syndrome Alaa Al Aswany, author of The Dictatorship Syndrome (2019), gives a talk for the Middle East Centre seminar series. Chaired by Professor Eugene Rogan (St Antony's College, Oxford) Alaa Al Aswany, Eugene Rogan 23 Oct 2020
20 The Leszek Kołakowski Lecture: Is Poland still a liberal democracy? Constitutional breakdown and potential revival Wojciech Sadurski (University of Sydney and University of Warsaw), gives the 2019 Leszek Kołakowski Lecture. Wojciech Sadurski 08 Sep 2020
21 Creative Commons A Forum for Reason: Reflections on the Role of South Africa’s Constitutional Court Prof Kate O'Regan, Director, Bonavero Institute of Human Rights and a former judge of the South African Constitutional Court, gives a talk for the Africa Oxford Initiative. Kate O'Regan 10 Feb 2020
22 Creative Commons Diplomacy for the 21st Century: The Future of the Democratic West Ambassador Nicholas Burns, former US Political Director and NATO Ambassador, delivered the final lecture in the Wolfson Lecture Series: Diplomacy in the 21st Century. He is introduced by Sir Tim Hitchens, College President. Nicholas Burns 13 Nov 2019
23 Journalism under assault Meera Selva, Director of the RISJ Journalist Fellowship Programme, discusses attacks on journalists and the media in central and eastern Europe. Meera Selva 05 Nov 2019
24 How bad is the current crisis of American democracy? Professor Adam Smith gives a talk to alumni entitled "How bad is the current crisis of American democracy?" Adam Smith 04 Oct 2019
25 Creative Commons Eyal Chowers - The emerging notion of sovereignty in contemporary Israel Eyal Chowers considers Israeli democracy, liberalism, and the emerging notion of sovereignty in the state Eyal Chowers 06 Mar 2019
26 Making the Case for Democracy Hillary Clinton delivers the Romanes Lecture of Hope in the Sheldonian Theatre, 25th June 2018 Hillary Clinton 31 Jan 2019
27 Creative Commons Iraq after the elections: A new beginning? Panel discussion with Harith Hasan (Central European University), Hayder al-Khoei (University of Exeter), Renad Mansour (Chatham House) and chaired by Toby Matthiesen (St Antony's College). Harith Hasan, Hayder al-Khoei, Renad Mansour, Toby Matthiesen 07 Dec 2018
28 Political Bioethics How should members of a liberal democratic political community, open to value pluralism, decide bioethical issues that generate deep disagreement? Benjamin Gregg 06 Nov 2018
29 Literacy and Democracy: Transitional Justice in South Africa The paper explores the work of several intellectuals reflecting on South Africa’s transition to democracy, considering how the question of literacy precedes any discussion about literature and democracy. Carrol Clarkson 03 Sep 2018
30 Women's Rights Research Seminar: Women and the Struggle for Democracy in Iran Mariam Memarsadeghi (Tavaana) gives a talk for the Middle East Centre seminar series. Mariam Memarsadeghi 03 Apr 2018
31 Creative Commons Challenges and Opportunities for strengthening State and Regional Parliaments in Myanmar Myat The Thitsar speaks at the Southeast Asia Seminar on 9 November, 2016 Myat The Thitsar 08 Dec 2017
32 Creative Commons Re-building Democracy: Parekh on Indian nationalism and the common good Colin Tyler (Hull) speaks at the South Asia Seminar on 1st November, 2016 Colin Tyler 29 Nov 2017
33 Rule of Law and Democratic Development in Pakistan Human rights lawyer and social activist Asma Jahangir gives the fourth annual Sarfraz Pakistan lecture. The lecture is introduced by Matthew McCartney. Asma Jahangir 20 Oct 2017
34 The Trump Administration and The New Nationalism The Rothermere American Institute’s annual Ambassador John J. Louis Jr. Lecture in Anglo-American Relations given by The Hon. Jamie Rubin, former U.S. Assistant Secretary of State. Jamie Rubin 05 Jun 2017
35 Panel Discussion: Prospects of Iraqi Kurdistan's Independence Amid Regional Turbulences Hemin Hawrami (Senior Adviser to President Masoud Barzani) and Ceng Sagnic (Moshe Dayan Centre, Israel), discuss the prospect of Kurdistan independence. Chaired by Eugene Rogan (St Antony’s College). Hemin Hawrami, Ceng Sagnic, Eugene Rogan, Ari Aziz Mamshae 16 May 2017
36 The Will of the People? The History of Petitioning in Britain and Its Implications for Today Mark Knights, Professor of History, University of Warwick, gives a talk for the FLJS Seminar Series on 2nd May 2017. Mark Knights 15 May 2017
37 The Politics of Student Mobility: what do international student statistics tell us about the democratic development of their home countries? Can you view studying abroad as an apprenticeship in democracy? Maia Chankseliani discusses her work, which focusses on former Soviet Union countries, linking student mobility with the level of democratic development in the student’s home country. Maia Chankseliani 03 Apr 2017
38 Putney Debates 2017 - Session IV: Preserving the Liberal Constitution The Putney Debates 2017 addresses the UK's constitutional future in the wake of the vote to leave the European Union. Onora O’Neill, Timothy Garton Ash, Frank Vibert, Michael Keating 24 Feb 2017
39 Putney Debates 2017 - Session III: Parliament, the Executive, the Courts and the Rule of Law The Putney Debates 2017 addresses the UK's constitutional future in the wake of the vote to leave the European Union. Joshua Rozenberg, Stephen Sedley, Alison Young, Adam Wagner 24 Feb 2017
40 Putney Debates 2017 - Session II: Changing and Strengthening the Role of the People The Putney Debates 2017 addresses the UK's constitutional future in the wake of the vote to leave the European Union. Paul Craig, Philip Kay, Will Hutton, John Howell 24 Feb 2017
41 Putney Debates 2017 - Session I: Parliament and the People The Putney Debates 2017 addresses the UK's constitutional future in the wake of the vote to leave the European Union. Denis Galligan, Sionaidh Douglas-Scott, David Runciman, Michael Mansfield 24 Feb 2017
42 Imaginary Invalids? Euro-Atlantic Populisms and the Crisis of Democracy Richard von Weizsåcker Lecture with Paul Nolte (Richard von Weizsäcker Fellow St Antony’s College), the chair is Paul Betts (St Antony's College). Paul Nolte 20 Feb 2017
43 Introduction to Film Screening of Pablo Larrain's NO By Alan Angell, author of *Democracy after Pinochet*SPEAKER: Alan Angell, Member of the Latin America Centre, Oxford; Emeritus Fellow of St Antony's College, Oxford; and author of Democracy after Pinochet. Alan Angell 01 Nov 2016
44 Creative Commons Strategy and Democracy Sir Hew Strachan gives a valedictory lecture for the Changing Character of War upon stepping down as Chichele Professor of the History of War. Hew Strachan 06 Jul 2016
45 Creative Commons The prospects for enhancing democracy and development in the Philippines: The 2016 elections and beyond David Timberman speaks at the Southeast Asia seminar. David Timberman 13 Jun 2016
46 Saving the media. Capitalism, crowdfunding, and democracy Julia Cage, assistant professor of economics, Sciences Po Paris, Department of Economics, gives a talk for the The Business and Practice of Journalism seminar series. Julia Cage 01 Jun 2016
47 Can The Referendum Be Democratic? Reflections On The Brexit Process Stephen Tierney, Professor of Constitutional Theory in the School of Law, University of Edinburgh, Stephen Tierney 15 Mar 2016
48 A multilevel citizenship puzzle: Residence and citizenship in national and local elections Rainer Baubock explores the citizenship puzzle - citizenship status and its relevance in contemporary democracies Rainer Bauböck 15 Feb 2016
49 Reimagining liberal education: Affiliation and inquiry in democratic schooling Professor Hanan Alexander, Haifa University, gives a talk for the Department of Education Public Seminar Series. Hanan Alexander 03 Feb 2016
50 Creative Commons The Geopolitics of Change in Burma Bertil Lintner (Independent Journalist and Author) speaks at the Southeast Asia Seminar on 20th January 2016. Bertil Lintner 27 Jan 2016
51 Creative Commons Lecture 3: Institutions of Democracy: King, President, Parliament, and Autonomous Communities Democratic institution building. Marina Perez de Arcos 16 Dec 2015
52 A Vote for Authoritarianism? Reflections of Singapore's 2015 General Election Pingtjin Thum (Research Associate, Centre for Global History; Coordinator, Project Southeast Asia) speaks at the Southeast Asia seminar on 21st October 2015. Pingtjin Thum 08 Dec 2015
53 The US – Pakistan Relations under Obama: Resilience of Clientelism? The Annual Sarfraz Pakistan Lecture, Wolfson College, Oxford, 30 Nov 2015 Christophe Jaffrelot 02 Dec 2015
54 Max Watson Memorial Lecture: Hate Speech and Democratic Citizenship Professor Eric Heinze, Professor of Law and Humanities, Queen Mary University London, gives the Max Watson Memorial Lecture. Eric Heinze 02 Nov 2015
55 Standing for the Whole - 2015 University College Clement Attlee Memorial Lecture Arnie Graf of the Industrial Areas Foundation, gives the 2015 Clement Atlee Memorial Lecture. Arnie Graf 27 Oct 2015
56 Democracy in Africa Booklaunch of Democracy in Africa which provides the 1st comprehensive overview of the history of contemporary democracy in Sub-Saharan Africa and explains why the continent's democratic experiments have so often failed, as well as how they could succeed. Nic Cheeseman, Phil Clark, Stephen Chan, Catherine Boone 14 Oct 2015
57 What is Philanthropy? And why does it matter in the 21st Century? A talk by Professor Zoltan Acs at the Oxford Centre for the Study of Philanthropy, Green Templeton College, University of Oxford. Stephen Barclay, Zoltan Acs 06 Oct 2015
58 Creative Commons 'Defining the Civil State in Egypt' Session 3: Regional Consequences of the Suppression of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt Part of a seminar on the relationship between religion and politics in Egypt. Dr Ewan Stein, Dr Omar Ashour 16 Sep 2015
59 British Philanthropy: Past and Present A talk by Dr Frank Prochaska at the Inaugural seminar of the Oxford Centre for the Study of Philanthropy, Green Templeton College, University of Oxford. Michael Earl, Frank Prochaskha   14 Aug 2015
60 Creative Commons Does transitional justice affect democratic institution-building? Dr. Chandra Sriram gives a talk OTJR seminar series on 9 March at 5pm Chandra Sriram 26 May 2015
61 Creative Commons Human Rights After the Election: A Near Miss or Apocalypse Now? Recorded 12th May 2015, in the wake of the 2015 General Election, are human rights safe or are they under serious threat? Adam Wagner 18 May 2015
62 The New Regulatory Space: Reframing Democratic Governance Frank Vibert, Senior Visiting Fellow, Department of Government, London School of Economics, gives a lecture for the Foundation for Law, Justice and Society series. Frank Vibert 01 Dec 2014
63 Media, Conflict and Democracy in Africa Joint Seminar of the African Studies Centre and Reuters Institute. Catherine Gichuru, Winston Mano, Nic Cheeseman, Alexandra Reza 25 Jun 2014
64 Creative Commons ePetitions Scott Hale discusses epetitions Scott Hale 12 Feb 2014
65 Political Extremism in the Interwar Period and its Economic Roots. Kevin O'Rourke, Chichele Professor of Economic History, and Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, gives a seminar for the PEFM programme. The discussant was Othon Anastasa and the chair was Paul Betts, St. Antony's College, Oxford. Kevin O’Rourke, Othon Anastasakis, Paul Betts 27 Nov 2013
66 Can Democracy and Human Rights be internationally imposed by armed force? Professor Sir Frank Berman, Professor Ngaire Woods and Ambassador R. James Woolsey discuss human rights at the Rhodes House 110th Anniversary event. Sir Frank Berman, Ngaire Woods, R. James Woolsey 29 Oct 2013
67 Democratic Statehood in International Law Dr Jure Vidmar, University of Oxford - 2 May 2013. Jure Vidmar 18 Jul 2013
68 Creative Commons Democracy Needs Us Fifth lecture in the Value of Humanities series in which Professor Helen Small discusses the idea that a flourishing democracy needs the Humanities. Helen Small 13 May 2013
69 Creative Commons The challenges of reporting China to the outside world Jane Macartney, the Times and former Reuters Beijing bureau chief gives a talk for the RISJ seminar series. Jane Macartney 16 Apr 2013
70 Creative Commons Challenges for Media Democratization in Brazil and Latin America Dr Carolina Matos, former LSE fellow, gives a talk for the Reuters Institute seminar series on 6th June 2012. Carolina Matos 25 Jun 2012
71 Aung San Suu Kyi: Honorary Degree Acceptance Speech Aung San Suu Kyi delivers her acceptance speech upon receiving her honorary degree from the University of Oxford at the 2012 Encaenia ceremony. Aung San Suu Kyi 20 Jun 2012
72 Will Constitutional Theocracy bloom after the Arab Spring? A critical analysis of Ran Hirschl's theory of 'constitutional theocracy' from the perspective of the Arab Spring. Clark Lombardi, William B Quandt 26 Mar 2012
73 Creative Commons Votes for Women, Chastity for Men Robert Saunders gives a lecture on the Suffragette movement and the campaign for universal suffrage in Britain. Robert Saunders 13 Jul 2011
74 The Indirect Origins of the Judicial Constitution: 2011 Annual Lecture in Law and Society In this Annual Lecture, Oxford Professor of Socio-Legal Studies Denis Galligan presents a number of illuminating constitutional snapshots from the last 300 years to explore the limits of representative democracy. Denis Galligan 20 Jun 2011
75 Creative Commons The Arab Democracy Uprisings and the Prospects for Peace in the Middle East. OxPeace 2011 Did the Western Media (And Everyone Else) get it Wrong? Reflections from an American Journalist. Andrew Lee Butters, Reuters Institute Fellow, Oxford, gives the third talk in session two of the 2011 OxPeace Conference. Andrew Lee Butters 17 May 2011
76 The Role of Courts in a Democracy: Debate A panel of leading academics, judges, and policymakers debate the growing trend towards the judicialization of politics, in which judges are increasingly implicated in settling policy disputes, especially in the context of constitutional rights. Charles Clarke, Lord Justice Jacob, Richard Bellamy, Philip Sales 18 Apr 2011
77 Celebrations of Democracy and the rise of the Political Festival Part of the Politics in Strange Places Conference held in Oxford in September 2010. Marc Stears 30 Mar 2011
78 Support Democracy Abroad: The Record in Africa Prof Thomas Carothers, Vice President for Studies, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Nuffield College, gives a talk for the Rothmere American Institute on 2nd Feb 2011. Thomas Carothers 14 Mar 2011
79 The History of Modern Constitutionalism This lecture establishes the ten essentials of modern constitutionalism, as first developed in the Virginia Declaration of Rights of 1776. Horst Dipple 22 Nov 2010
80 Charter 88 and the Constitutional Reform Movement Twenty Years On; discussion Second part of a Panel discussion held at Portculis House, Westminster, discussing the central strengths and achievements of the Constitutional Reform with questions and comments from the audience. David Erdos, Peter Facey, Ferdinand Mount, Tony Wright 17 Dec 2009
81 Charter 88 and the Constitutional Reform Movement Twenty Years On First part of a Panel discussion held at Portculis House, Westminster, asking what have been the central strengths and achievements of the constitutional reform movement among other questions that look back at Charter 88. David Erdos, Peter Facey, Ferdinand Mount, Tony Wright 15 Dec 2009
82 From Weblogs to Twitter: How Did We Get Where We Are Today and What Are the Main Impacts To Date? What are the most important milestones in the evolution of social media? What factors have shaped their successes and limitations? Kathryn Corrick, Dave Sifry, Bill Thompson, William Dutton 13 Nov 2009
83 Parties, Campaigns and Representation: The Political Impact of Blogs and Social Media Panel discussion during the Oxford Social Media Convention 2009 on whether the outcome of political careers and even campaigns is increasingly dependent on the successful mastery of new communication tools including social media. Helen Margetts, Iain Dale, Andrew Rasiej, Matthew McGregor 30 Oct 2009
84 Social Media, So What? Assessing the Impact of Blogs and Social Media Panel discussion during the Oxford Social Media Convention 2009 on the socially egalitarian and politically democratic potential of social media. Have they lived up to the promises? Sandra Gonzalez-Bailon, Stefan Niggemeier, Evgeny Morozov, Richard Allan 30 Oct 2009
85 Parties, Campaigns and Representation: The Political Impact of Blogs and Social Media Are social media tools likely to prove effective in engaging any voters except those who are already interested in politics? Is their apparent 'democratisation' of traditional party structures to be believed? Helen Margetts, Iain Dale, Andrew Rasiej, Matthew McGregor 07 Oct 2009
86 Social Media, So What? Assessing the Impact of Blogs and Social Media Can Web 2.0 tools (eg blogs, social networking and wikis) enhance our democratic freedoms? Or can we dismiss the socially egalitarian and politically democratic potential of these social media? Have any significant social impacts been ignored so far? Sandra Gonzalez-Bailon, Stefan Niggemeier, Evgeny Morozov, Richard Allan 07 Oct 2009
87 FLJS part 1: Human Rights Aharon Barak talks about human rights and the limitations imposed on them that are necessary for society to preserve itself. Part 1 of the 2009 Foundation for Law Justice and Society Annual Lecture. Aharon Barak 24 Jul 2009
88 2009 Annual Lecture: Human rights and their limitations: the role of proportionality The former President of the Israeli Supreme Court Aharon Barak addresses the appropriate balance between security and the safeguarding of human rights. Aharon Barak 24 Jul 2009
89 Detective Fictions: In Pursuit of Sovereignty in the Postcolony Professor Jean Comaroff gives the 2008 African Studies Annual Lecture on the situation in South Africa, the rise of crime and violence as well as the rise private security companies and belief in the supernatural forces of witchcraft. Jean Comaroff 05 May 2009
90 The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same: Online Audiences and the Paradox of Web Traffic Using three years of daily Web traffic data, and new models adapted from financial mathematics, this talk examines large-scale variation in Web traffic. Matthew Hindman 06 Mar 2009
91 The long hard road to democracy and social justice A lecture given by retired Labour MP Tony Benn at Wolfson College, Oxford. The lecture is introduced by Prof Richard Sorabji. Tony Benn 11 Dec 2008
92 Through the Network (of Networks): The Fifth Estate The Internet and web are creating a new space for networking people, information and other resources: this has the potential to become an important 'fifth estate' to support greater accountability in politics, the media and other institutional arenas. William Dutton 12 Sep 2008
93 If the Public Would be Outraged by Their Rulings, Should Judges Care? This Foundation for Law, Justice and Society Annual Lecture, delivered by Professor Cass Sunstein on 24 May 2007, questions the limits and legitimacy of judicial independence in the face of public opinion. Cass Sunstein 11 Aug 2008